Smith concludes his in-depth examination of Spencer’s fundamental objection to the private ownership of land.
John Locke was an Enlightenment philosopher who developed a social contract theory of natural rights and government.
17th-century pamphleteer, organizer, and dissident John Lilburne was an important early voice for liberty, especially in matters of criminal justice.
In this excerpt from Libertarianism: A Primer, Boaz tells the history of the movement for liberty, from to Chinese philosopher Lao Tzu through the 20th century.
Rose Wilder Lane, journalist and author, was one of the founding mothers of modern American libertarianism.
Martin Luther King, Jr. was a prominent activist in the civil rights movement, a spectacular orator, and a practitioner of nonviolent resistance.
Thomas Jefferson was the author of the Declaration of Independence and the third President of the United States.
Hugo Grotius, a 17th century Dutch legal scholar and philosopher, was the father of modern international law and a staunch opponent of war.
Founding father, scientist, businessman, diplomat—Franklin was America’s original “self-made man.”
Lord Acton was a 19th century politician, historian, and writer best remembered for his commentary on the corrupting influence of power.
Smith discusses some criticisms by Auberon Herbert and Thomas Hodgskin of Spencer’s position on land.
In this essay, collected in What Social Classes Owe to Each Other (1911), Sumner denounces busybody social reformers who want to run other people’s lives.
In this piece, collected in Sumner argues that democracy is especially vulnerable to plutocratic influence. Originally published in The Independent.
Sumner defines and distinguishes the concepts of democracy and plutocracy. Originally published in The Independent.