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Biographical

Mencken, H. L. (1880-1956)

by Rod L. Evans

Henry Louis Mencken was a prolific and stalwart writer, protesting government overreach and planning in newspapers and his own books.

Biographical

Menger, Carl (1840-1921)

by Lawrence H. White

A founding influence of the Austrian School of economics, Carl Menger predominantly wrote on the subjects of prices, marginal utility, and money. 

Biographical

Meyer, Frank S. (1909-1972)

by Christopher A. Preble

Frank S. Meyer was a major advocate of the right-wing fusionist movement, which attempted to unite elements of libertarianism and traditional conservatism.

Biographical

Mill, John Stuart (1806-1873)

by Aeon Skoble

John Stuart Mill was a philosopher best known for his contributions to a free-market, more freedom-oriented view of utilitarianism.

Biographical

Milton, John (1608-1674)

by Antony Flew

Best known for the epic Paradise Lost, John Milton was an active voice for republican government and individualism during the English Civil Wars.

Biographical

Mises, Ludwig von (1881-1972)

by Leland Yeager

Ludwig von Mises was one of the most influential economists of the Austrian School, focusing among other issues the failures of central planning.

Biographical

Molinari, Gustave de (1819-1912)

by David Hart

A great 19th century French economist, Gustave de Molinari was outspoken about his opposition of protectionist government policy.

Biographical

Montaigne, Michel de (1533-1592)

by Jason Kuznicki

Michel de Montaigne was a French writer who popularized the reflective essay and contributed several essays on individualism and humanistic thought.

Biographical

Montesquieu, Charles de Secondat de

by Jason Kuznicki

Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu, wrote a theory of limited government that inspired American constitutional design and philosophy.

Biographical

Murray, Charles (1943-)

by Brian Doherty

Charles Murray’s work has questioned the effectiveness and implications of the American welfare state and promoted individualist solutions instead.

Biographical

Nathan, Tonie (1923-2014)

by David Boaz

Tonie Nathan was the running mate of 1976 Libertarian presidential candidate John Hospers and the first woman to receive an electoral vote.

Biographical

Nietzsche, Friedrich (1844-1900)

by Lester Hunt

Friedrich Nietzsche was a controversial philosopher of the 19th century whose antagonism towards political institutions remains ambiguous to scholars.

Biographical

Nock, Albert Jay (1870-1945)

by Charles Hamilton

Albert Jay Nock was an influential writer who criticized political action and protested state interventionism at all levels.

Biographical

Nozick, Robert (1938-2002)

by Ellen Frankel Paul

Robert Nozick’s work, especially his book Anarchy, State, & Utopia, re-interested many people in political philosophy and libertarianism.

Biographical

Oppenheimer, Franz (1864-1943)

by George H. Smith

Franz Oppenheimer, a German sociologist, wrote a comprehensive explanation of the history of the state as a history of conquest.

Biographical

Ortega y Gasset, José (1883-1955)

by David Fitzsimons and Lester Hunt

José Ortega y Gasset was a philosopher who wrote on the evils of state power and the way society grew and changed after the Industrial Revolution.

Biographical

Orwell, George (1903-1950)

by David Ramsay Steele

A well-known novelist and essayist, George Orwell’s social criticisms against totalitarianism still remain relevant today.

Biographical

Ostrom, Vincent (1919-2012) and Elinor (1933-2012)

by Paul Dragos Aligica

The Ostroms founded the Bloomington School of Institutional Analysis at the University of Indiana, dedicated to self-governance and evaluating state institutions.