The Third Earl of Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley Cooper was a statesman and philosopher with an interest in individualism and the natural harmony of interests.
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Algernon Sidney was a fervent republican whose philosophy and politics, as well as his eventual martyrdom, influenced democratic revolutionaries who followed him.
Julian Simon was an American economist who wrote on the ways in which human innovation and efficiency makes population growth a net benefit for production.
Adam Smith is credited as one of the most important theorists of laissez-faire economics. His work is often seen as foundational to capitalism.
Thomas Sowell is an economist and social theorist who has written and taught on the topics of human achievement, free markets, race, and culture.
Herbert Spencer was a major influence on 19th century liberalism. His work on evolutionary theory and social order made him one of the first sociologists.
Lysander Spooner was a legal and political theorist favoring individualist anarchy. He is best known for his activism as an abolitionist.
George J. Stigler was a Nobel Prize winning economist who wrote on a number of topics, including prices, regulation, and information theory.
Max Stirner was a German writer who presented a case for egoism and freedom that influenced many individualist anarchists after him.
William Graham Sumner was an economist and sociologist. He is known for his staunch opposition to American imperialism and dedication to individualism.
Thomas Szasz was an influential writer who opposed involuntary or coercive hospitalization for those deemed “mentally ill,” a label he challenged.
Robert A. Taft was a prominent US Senator who started and passed legislation restricting government and union control and advocating for international diplomacy.
Henry David Thoreau is best known for his essays on naturalism and on non-violent disobedience against repressive government policy and coercion.
Alexis de Tocqueville was a scholar and statesman known for his analysis of the French Revolution’s failures and the problems of government intervention.
Antoine-Louis-Claude Destutt de Tracy was a social and political theorist known for coining the term “ideology,” though he used it to explain liberal philosophy.
Benjamin R. Tucker was the editor of the periodical, Liberty, which was dedicated to spreading Tucker’s ideas about individualist anarchism.
Gordon Tullock contributed to the start of the public choice school of economics and countered status-quo arguments about the role of government in the market.
Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot was a French economist, writer, and royal advisor. He tried to accomplish sweeping liberal reform of the economy and political system.