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Biographical

Shaftesbury, Third Earl of (1671-1713)

by George H. Smith

The Third Earl of Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley Cooper was a statesman and philosopher with an interest in individualism and the natural harmony of interests.

Biographical

Sidney, Algernon (1623-1683)

by Aaron Steelman

Algernon Sidney was a fervent republican whose philosophy and politics, as well as his eventual martyrdom, influenced democratic revolutionaries who followed him.

Biographical

Simon, Julian (1932-1998)

by Donald J. Boudreaux

Julian Simon was an American economist who wrote on the ways in which human innovation and efficiency makes population growth a net benefit for production.

Biographical

Smith, Adam (1723-1790)

by Ronald Hamowy

Adam Smith is credited as one of the most important theorists of laissez-faire economics. His work is often seen as foundational to capitalism.

Biographical

Sowell, Thomas (1930-)

by Jo Kwong

Thomas Sowell is an economist and social theorist who has written and taught on the topics of human achievement, free markets, race, and culture.

Biographical

Spencer, Herbert (1820-1903)

by George H. Smith

Herbert Spencer was a major influence on 19th century liberalism. His work on evolutionary theory and social order made him one of the first sociologists.

Biographical

Spooner, Lysander (1808-1881)

by Randy E. Barnett

Lysander Spooner was a legal and political theorist favoring individualist anarchy. He is best known for his activism as an abolitionist.

Biographical

Stigler, George J. (1911-1991)

by Aaron Steelman

George J. Stigler was a Nobel Prize winning economist who wrote on a number of topics, including prices, regulation, and information theory.

Biographical

Stirner, Max (1806-1856)

by Will Wilkinson

Max Stirner was a German writer who presented a case for egoism and freedom that influenced many individualist anarchists after him.

Biographical

Sumner, William Graham (1840-1910)

by Robert Bannister

William Graham Sumner was an economist and sociologist. He is known for his staunch opposition to American imperialism and dedication to individualism.

Biographical

Szasz, Thomas (1920-2012)

by Rod L. Evans

Thomas Szasz was an influential writer who opposed involuntary or coercive hospitalization for those deemed “mentally ill,” a label he challenged.

Biographical

Taft, Robert A. (1889-1953)

by Leonard Liggio

Robert A. Taft was a prominent US Senator who started and passed legislation restricting government and union control and advocating for international diplomacy.

Biographical

Thoreau, Henry David (1817-1862)

by Jeff Riggenbach

Henry David Thoreau is best known for his essays on naturalism and on non-violent disobedience against repressive government policy and coercion.

Biographical

Tocqueville, Alexis de (1805-1859)

by Jason Kuznicki

Alexis de Tocqueville was a scholar and statesman known for his analysis of the French Revolution’s failures and the problems of government intervention.

Biographical

Tracy, Destutt de (1754-1836)

by David Hart

Antoine-Louis-Claude Destutt de Tracy was a social and political theorist known for coining the term “ideology,” though he used it to explain liberal philosophy.

Biographical

Tucker, Benjamin R. (1854-1939)

by Aaron Steelman

Benjamin R. Tucker was the editor of the periodical, Liberty, which was dedicated to spreading Tucker’s ideas about individualist anarchism.

Biographical

Tullock, Gordon

by Paul Dragos Aligica

Gordon Tullock contributed to the start of the public choice school of economics and countered status-quo arguments about the role of government in the market.

Biographical

Turgot, Anne-Robert-Jacques (1727-1781)

by David Hart

Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot was a French economist, writer, and royal advisor. He tried to accomplish sweeping liberal reform of the economy and political system.