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Law Merchant

by Bruce Benson

The Law Merchant was the common law of merchants in the 11th and 12th century, a good example of laws not imposed by the state.

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Left Libertarianism

by Jan Narveson and David Trenchard

Left libertarians, while supporters of some personal freedoms, are often proponents of a socialist or communal view on natural resources and property.

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Levellers

by Peter Kurrild-Klitgaard

The Levellers was a loosely organized group of radicals who fought both the rule of the English monarchy and Cromwell’s commonwealth during the English Civil War.

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Liberal Critique of Libertarianism

by Colin Bird

In this entry, Colin Bird explains and responds to the major critiques of libertarianism offered by progressive/left-wing liberals.

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Liberalism, Classical

by David Conway

Classical liberalism typically refers to liberal philosophers in the 17th and 18th centuries, but whose ideas are carried on by libertarians today.

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Liberalism, German

by Detmar Doering

Liberalism in Germany reacted to the conservative and progressive political changes of the time with a strong anti-government stance.

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Liberty in the Ancient World

by Roderick T. Long

Liberty has been a value to many civilizations. In this entry, Roderick Long highlights a few instances of liberal ideas in pre-modern societies.

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Liberty, Presumption of

by Anthony de Jasay

Individuals should be able to act in whatever way they want until sufficient reason that they be stopped, instead of needing permission to act.

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Limited Government

by Stephen Davies

The idea that government should be subject to the law and possess only those powers granted by law is fundamental to libertarianism.