The Law Merchant was the common law of merchants in the 11th and 12th century, a good example of laws not imposed by the state.
Left libertarians, while supporters of some personal freedoms, are often proponents of a socialist or communal view on natural resources and property.
The Levellers was a loosely organized group of radicals who fought both the rule of the English monarchy and Cromwell’s commonwealth during the English Civil War.
In this entry, Colin Bird explains and responds to the major critiques of libertarianism offered by progressive/left-wing liberals.
Classical liberalism typically refers to liberal philosophers in the 17th and 18th centuries, but whose ideas are carried on by libertarians today.
Liberalism in Germany reacted to the conservative and progressive political changes of the time with a strong anti-government stance.
Liberty has been a value to many civilizations. In this entry, Roderick Long highlights a few instances of liberal ideas in pre-modern societies.
Individuals should be able to act in whatever way they want until sufficient reason that they be stopped, instead of needing permission to act.
The idea that government should be subject to the law and possess only those powers granted by law is fundamental to libertarianism.