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Law Merchant

by Bruce Benson

The Law Merchant was the common law of merchants in the 11th and 12th century, an example of law not imposed by a state.


Left Libertarianism

by Jan Narveson and David Trenchard

Left libertarians, while supporters of some personal freedoms, are often proponents of a socialist or communal view on natural resources and property.



by Peter Kurrild-Klitgaard

The Levellers was a group of radicals who fought both the rule of the English monarchy and Cromwell’s commonwealth during the English Civil War.


Liberal Critique of Libertarianism

by Colin Bird

In this entry, Colin Bird explains and responds to the major critiques of libertarianism offered by progressive/left-wing liberals.


Liberalism, Classical

by David Conway

Classical liberalism typically refers to liberal philosophers in the 17th and 18th centuries, but whose ideas are carried on by libertarians today.


Liberalism, German

by Detmar Doering

Liberalism in Germany reacted to the conservative and progressive political changes of the time with a strong anti-government stance.


Liberty in the Ancient World

by Roderick T. Long

Liberty has been a value to many civilizations. In this entry, Roderick Long highlights a few instances of liberal ideas in pre-modern societies.


Liberty, Presumption of

by Anthony de Jasay

Individuals should be able to act in whatever way they want until sufficient reason that they be stopped, instead of needing permission to act.


Limited Government

by Stephen Davies

The idea that government should be subject to the law and possess only those powers granted by law is fundamental to libertarianism.