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Peace and Pacifism

by Robert Higgs

In this entry, Robert Higgs outlines public opinion of war throughout American history and the stances the government took to anti-war sentiment.

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Philosophic Radicals

by George H. Smith

The Philosophic Radicals, including Jeremy Bentham, were British reformers generally supporting Benthian utilitarianism and democratic change.

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Physiocracy

by George H. Smith

The physiocrats were French laissez-faire economists in the late 18th century who based their policies and writings on natural reason and science.

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Positive Liberty

by Tibor Machan

Positive liberty presents a case for liberty as the ability to succeed. Often, though, positive liberty can only be achieved by violating negative liberty.

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Praxeology

by George H. Smith

Praxeology, as popularized by Ludwig von Mises, is an interdisciplinary approach to social questions that abstracts and thus universally explains human action.

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Private Property

by Tom Bethell

Private property succeeds in supporting an ordered, free, and just society where other configurations of property fail.

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Progress

by George H. Smith

Libertarians celebrate increasing individual liberties as the main fuel for human progress - material, moral, and intellectual.

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Progressive Era

by Richard Adelstein

The Progressive Era of the early 20th century brought a new wave of social and economic reform that fueled a much more interventionist government.

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Prohibition of Alcohol

by Jackson Kuhl

The Prohibition of alcohol, from 1919-1933, though intended to reduce alcohol consumption, merely made alcohol consumption more dangerous.

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Puritanism

by Hans Eicholz

Puritans were Protestant Christians in England and Scotland who fought for reform of the church against Anglican opposition and backlash.

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Pursuit of Happiness

by Hans Eicholz

The Declaration of Independence famously spoke of right to “the pursuit of happiness,” a phrase that has been questioned as to its extent and meaning.