Common law describes the form of law used to resolve disputes between individuals where decisions are made based on intent, effects, and circumstances.
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Communism is the political system in which all aspects of life are planned by the state. Its presence has been devastating for millions of people.
Competition between multiple firms fuels innovation, trade, and efficiency. For this reason, competition is an important part of a free market economy.
In this entry, George H. Smith addresses the idea of conscience in western thought and the importance of liberty of conscience to be maintained.
Consequentialism, the viewpoint that consequences matter above other aspects of decision-making, allows for greater attention to detail in policy analysis.
In this entry, George Carey explores the founding principles of conservatism and the ways in which they can be seen in modern conservative thought.
In this entry, Edward C. Feser outlines some common arguments conservatives raise against libertarians and how those criticisms have affected both movements.
The Constitution is the foundational document of the U.S. government. Debates over its interpretation still make a large impact on governmental power.
Constitutionalism binds the government to a pre-decided set of rules and is favored as a form of limiting government expansion.
One common model of state formation, the social contract consists of the voluntary exchange of protection and rights between governments and citizens.
Culture is a fundamental aspect of civil society and human interaction that can extend to influence legality, economics, and ideology as well.
Supporters of decentralism argue that central concentration of power threatens liberty and prefer decision-making power to be diffused on a local level.
The Declaration of Independence is considered an establishing document of America and the place where the country’s values were initially written out.
As part of the overthrow of the French monarchy in 1789, this document served as the first attempt at capturing the ideals of a possible French Republic.
Delegation from the legislature to executive bureaus and others grants these groups additional powers, often at the result of decreased accountability.
In this entry, Randall Holcombe overviews the ideals, strengths, and weaknesses of democracy, particularly as it occurs in states today.
Specialization and division of labor are central parts of the market economy that allow for development and increased efficiency of trade and production.
One example of a prosperous and relatively free society, the Dutch Republic was a major world power between the 16th and 18th centuries.