Economists in the Austrian School approach their analysis by looking at human choices and behavior, and how human action by itself creates and regulates markets.
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Economists in the Chicago School use highly empirical arguments to reach their conclusions and advocate for deregulated markets and policy focus on money supply.
Experimental economists study human incentive structures and behaviors as ways to explain the institutions and rules of economic activity.
Keynesian economists theorize that government spending can be used to manage the economy. It has been a widely accepted stance since the 1930s.
In this entry, Ronald Hamowy overviews the English Civil Wars of the mid 17th century and the raised issues of royal authority and religious liberty.
The Enlightenment was an era that brought a wave of philosophical ideas, including classical liberalism, scientific progress, and social and religious tolerance.
Entrepreneurship, or the development of new products, methods, and means by individuals, is considered to be a compelling factor in economic growth as well.
Environmental regulations aim to reduce supposed externalities for the sake of stewardship, but sometimes place an unnecessary burden on the free market.
Epicureanism was a prominent school of thought among classical philosophers, including empiricists and contractarians such as Cicero and Lucretius.
A libertarian focus on equality mostly focuses on the notion of equal rights and justice systems must operate in a way that maintains these rights.
Evolutionary psychologists use the underlying concept of natural selection and evolution to study and attempt to explain human behavior and decision-making.
Existentialist philosophy focuses on the individual. Its moral implications, while sometimes criticized, can also have uses for libertarian thought.
In this entry, Alexander Volokh examines how externalities are generated in the market and questions the assumption that government should act because of them.
In this entry, Bryan Caplan outlines the history of fascist regimes and distinguishes what differentiates fascism from other totalitarian regime forms.
Federalism is the form of government that diffuses political authority. It is favored to protect against consolidation of power in a central authority.
In free markets, voluntary interaction makes up the economy’s structure, allowing for little to no state regulation and thus mutually beneficial trade.
While valued by many schools of thought, freedom can be understood in a variety of ways, such as the difference between positive and negative freedom.
Freedom of speech is a pillar of a free society. In this entry, Alan Charles Kors discusses how it has been attacked even in modern democracies.