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Economics, Austrian School of

by Peter J. Boettke

Economists in the Austrian School approach their analysis by looking at human choices and behavior, and how human action by itself creates and regulates markets.

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Economics, Chicago School of

by Ronald Hamowy

Economists in the Chicago School use highly empirical arguments to reach their conclusions and advocate for deregulated markets and policy focus on money supply.

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Economics, Experimental

by Vernon L. Smith and Bart Wilson

Experimental economists study human incentive structures and behaviors as ways to explain the institutions and rules of economic activity.

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Economics, Keynesian

by Daniel B. Klein

Keynesian economists theorize that government spending can be used to manage the economy. It has been a widely accepted stance since the 1930s.

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English Civil Wars

by Ronald Hamowy

In this entry, Ronald Hamowy overviews the English Civil Wars of the mid 17th century and the raised issues of royal authority and religious liberty.

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Enlightenment

by Stephen Hicks

The Enlightenment was an era that brought a wave of philosophical ideas, including classical liberalism, scientific progress, and social and religious tolerance.

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Entrepreneurship

by David Harper

Entrepreneurship, or the development of new products, methods, and means by individuals, is considered to be a compelling factor in economic growth as well.

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Environment

by Jonathan Adler

Environmental regulations aim to reduce supposed externalities for the sake of stewardship, but sometimes place an unnecessary burden on the free market.

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Epicureanism

by Roderick T. Long

Epicureanism was a prominent school of thought among classical philosophers, including empiricists and contractarians such as Cicero and Lucretius. 

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Equality

by George H. Smith

A libertarian focus on equality mostly focuses on the notion of equal rights and justice systems must operate in a way that maintains these rights.

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Evolutionary Psychology

by Leda Cosmides and John Tooby

Evolutionary psychologists use the underlying concept of natural selection and evolution to study and attempt to explain human behavior and decision-making. 

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Existentialism

by George H. Smith

Existentialist philosophy focuses on the individual. Its moral implications, while sometimes criticized, can also have uses for libertarian thought.

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Externalities

by Alexander Volokh

In this entry, Alexander Volokh examines how externalities are generated in the market and questions the assumption that government should act because of them.

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Fascism

by Bryan Caplan

In this entry, Bryan Caplan outlines the history of fascist regimes and distinguishes what differentiates fascism from other totalitarian regime forms.

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Federalism

by John Samples

Federalism is the form of government that diffuses political authority. It is favored to protect against consolidation of power in a central authority.

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Free-Market Economy

by Donald J. Boudreaux

In free markets, voluntary interaction makes up the economy’s structure, allowing for little to no state regulation and thus mutually beneficial trade.

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Freedom

by Terry Price

While valued by many schools of thought, freedom can be understood in a variety of ways, such as the difference between positive and negative freedom.

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Freedom of Speech

by Alan Charles Kors

Freedom of speech is a pillar of a free society. In this entry, Alan Charles Kors discusses how it has been attacked even in modern democracies.