Classical liberalism typically refers to liberal philosophers in the 17th and 18th centuries, but whose ideas are carried on by libertarians today.
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Liberalism in Germany reacted to the conservative and progressive political changes of the time with a strong anti-government stance.
Liberty has been a value to many civilizations. In this entry, Roderick Long highlights a few instances of liberal ideas in pre-modern societies.
Individuals should be able to act in whatever way they want until sufficient reason that they be stopped, instead of needing permission to act.
The idea that government should be subject to the law and possess only those powers granted by law is fundamental to libertarianism.
Renowned as one of the first documents limiting royal authority, Magna Carta established written rules and limits of political institutions.
Marxism is the philosophy calling for the working class to overcome capitalism and institute a socialist society. Politically, it has only caused disaster.
The advancement of material progress, or quality of life, has increased dramatically within the past few hundred years and continues increasing today.
Mercantilism was the belief that wealth of nations was based on the amount of money held by the nation, through high internal protections and a focus on exports.
The minimal state solution is one wherein the state provides protection for the people in its domain but does nothing else.
The Mont Pelerin Society was formed in 1947 to gather thinkers and advocates of a free society to discuss and further classical-liberal ideas.
Nationalism places the collective identity of a nation above all other aspects of life. Its disregard for individualism has led to disastrous political movements.
The natural harmony of interests is the concept that when people act in their own self-interest, it contributes to the overall social interest.
Natural law theorists explain that all man-made law should derive from some universal law of nature, discovered either through divine inspiration or human reason.
The New Deal was the series of government programs aimed at those hurt by the Great Depression, which majorly expanded the size and expense of government.
The nonaggression axiom or principle mandates that individuals do not use physical force against others or their property, except for retaliation.
Objectivism, the moral philosophy expressed by Ayn Rand, celebrates individualism and argues that humans morally should work towards their own happiness.
In this entry, Robert Higgs outlines public opinion of war throughout American history and the stances the government took to anti-war sentiment.