Thomas Sowell is an economist and social theorist who has written and taught on the topics of human achievement, free markets, race, and culture.
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Spencer was a major influence on 19th century liberalism. His work on evolutionary theory and social order made him one of the first sociologists.
Spontaneous order theory suggests that society is the aggregate of individual action, and that institutions of society form without government planning.
Lysander Spooner was a legal and political theorist favoring individualist anarchy. He is best known for his activism as an abolitionist.
What the state should look like varies even among libertarians.
George J. Stigler was a Nobel Prize winning economist who wrote on a number of topics, including prices, regulation, and information theory.
Max Stirner was a German writer who presented a case for egoism and freedom that influenced many individualist anarchists after him.
Stoicism was a philosophical movement in Ancient Greece and Rome based on rational self-discipline, virtue, and natural law as the basis for state authority.
Subsidiarity is decentralized, bottom-up decision-making. Libertarians support decentralization that places the individual in charge of their own decisions.
William Graham Sumner was an economist and sociologist. He is known for his staunch opposition to American imperialism and dedication to individualism.
Thomas Szasz was an influential writer who opposed involuntary or coercive hospitalization for those deemed “mentally ill,” a label he challenged.
Taft was a prominent US Senator who started and passed legislation restricting government and union control and advocating for international diplomacy.
Tax competition occurs when governments adopt more attractive tax policies to attract people to live and do business within their borders.
Taxation is when government claims the resources of its citizens to fund its projects. Even if argued as necessary, it is a coercive process.
Term limits played a crucial role in early US state governments. While a standard for executives, term limits are still debated for members of Congress.
Henry David Thoreau is best known for his essays on naturalism and on non-violent disobedience against repressive government policy and coercion.
Alexis de Tocqueville was a scholar and statesman known for his analysis of the French Revolution’s failures and the problems of government intervention.
Destutt de Tracy was a social and political theorist known for coining the term “ideology,” though he used it to explain liberal philosophy.