Athenian banks afforded women and slaves a chance at economic autonomy. This was possible because of lax enforcement of laws restricting their economic liberty.
Personal freedom in ancient Athens was tied up with economic freedom, including free trade and free immigration.
Athens, for all its flaws, was a beacon of personal liberty in the ancient world.
The discovery of philosophy in ancient Greece was spurred on by a “marketplace of ideas” where rational justification trumped doctrinal authority.
Hesiod thought that doing injustice could bring down the wrath of the gods, even in the chaotic, violent “Age of Iron.”
Hesiod distinguished between market competition and war, saying “The two Strifes have separate natures.”
The ancient Greek poet Hesiod favored productive work over violent expropriation.
In the Iliad, it’s not only heroes like Achilles who raise doubts about war. Thersites, a commoner, does, too—attacking the aristocracy while he’s at it.
Long begins a series about the legacy left to libertarianism by ancient Greece with a discussion of Achilles and the Homeric attitude toward war and glory.