Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, self-described both as an anarchist and as a socialist, contributed several rebukes of government and defenses of individualism.
Many nations have built themselves into empires. American imperalism has often been presented as a debate between values and territorial expansion.
Francis Hutcheson’s philosophy addressed moral obligations as they related to personal liberties, virtue, and rights.
Known as the namesake of Berlin’s premier university, Wilhelm von Humboldt was a statesman, educational reformer, and German liberal philosopher.
Originally referring to renaissance thinkers and scholars emphasizing human possibility and achievement, the word “humanist” has taken on other meanings.
The first presidential candidate of the Libertarian party, John Hospers played an important role in organizing libertarians for political action.
Tonie Nathan was the running mate of 1976 Libertarian presidential candidate John Hospers and the first woman to receive an electoral vote.
Thomas Hodgskin was a British political and economic theorist affiliated most with individualist anarchism, though his writings were vivid and original.
Left libertarians, while supporters of some personal freedoms, are often proponents of a socialist or communal view on natural resources and property.
A staunch defender of property rights and opponent to forced redistribution, Auberon Herbert contributed several major works to classical liberalism.
Spencer was a major influence on 19th century liberalism. His work on evolutionary theory and social order made him one of the first sociologists.
Heinlein, author of a number of fundamental science fiction novels, provided an eerily relevant social critique of the overreach of government.
Henry Hazlitt was an economic journalist and popular author whose works explained and elaborated on many libertarian ideas.
An accomplished libertarian writer and the founder of the Institute for Humane Studies, Harper devoted his life to educating others about libertarianism.
Read was an activist who founded the Foundation for Economic Education, a free-market and anti-socialist nonprofit and educational organization.
Barry Goldwater’s stark commitment to a platform of freedom and limited government helped to realign public opinion in support of economic conservatism.
Taft was a prominent US Senator who started and passed legislation restricting government and union control and advocating for international diplomacy.
A popular novelist as well as a political philosopher, William Godwin was one of the first influential writers on the topic of philosophical anarchism.