Thomas Hodgskin was a British political and economic theorist affiliated most with individualist anarchism, though his writings were vivid and original.
Tonie Nathan was the running mate of 1976 Libertarian presidential candidate John Hospers and the first woman to receive an electoral vote.
The first presidential candidate of the Libertarian party, John Hospers played an important role in organizing libertarians for political action.
Originally referring to renaissance thinkers and scholars emphasizing human possibility and achievement, the word “humanist” has taken on other meanings.
Known as the namesake of Berlin’s premier university, Wilhelm von Humboldt was a statesman, educational reformer, and German liberal philosopher.
Francis Hutcheson’s philosophy addressed moral obligations as they related to personal liberties, virtue, and rights.
Many nations have built themselves into empires. American imperalism has often been presented as a debate between values and territorial expansion.
Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, self-described both as an anarchist and as a socialist, contributed several rebukes of government and defenses of individualism.
Debate continues as to whether or not intellectual property – or property of ideas – should be protected as physical property is.
The widespread use of the Internet has created new models of business and ways to collect and spread information to both positive and negative effects.
Islamic teachings contribute to or are consistent with many libertarian principles, such as tolerance, property rights, and the strength of individuals.
Italian scholars’ contributions to politics and economics include critical theoretical work on tax analysis, state authority, and public spending.
The natural harmony of interests is the concept that when people act in their own self-interest, it contributes to the overall social interest.
A respected French political philosopher, Bertrand de Jouvenel examined a number of topics to do with power and the role of the state.
The Law Merchant was the common law of merchants in the 11th and 12th century, an example of law not imposed by a state.
Strict liability rules require people to take responsibility for damages done to others’ property and are therefore favored by libertarianism.
Frank H. Knight was an economist whose skeptical writings on economic planning and limited government informed the work of the Chicago School.
Michel de Montaigne was a French writer who popularized the reflective essay and contributed several essays on individualism and humanistic thought.