Also known as the death penalty, capital punishment has divided libertarians over the power of government and the justice of criminal procedures.
Retributive justice holds that punishment is the only way to achieve justice and properly disincentivize criminal behavior, but to explain why, opinions differ.
Adam Smith is credited as one of the most important theorists of laissez-faire economics. His work is often seen as foundational to capitalism.
The advancement of material progress, or quality of life, has increased dramatically within the past few hundred years and continues increasing today.
A notable early economist, Richard Cantillon is influential for his theories on the self-regulating market, entrepreneurship, and prices.
The physiocrats were French laissez-faire economists in the late 18th century who based their policies and writings on natural reason and science.
Entrepreneurship, or the development of new products, methods, and means by individuals, is considered to be a compelling factor in economic growth.
In this entry, Bradley Smith outlines the trends and outcomes of campaign finance reform legislation over the past 100 years.
Freedom of speech is a pillar of a free society. In this entry, Alan Charles Kors discusses how it has been attacked even in modern democracies.
Corruption in government is a widely discussed issue, as its impacts on government effectiveness impact democratic institutions and individual liberty.
Thomas Aquinas was a philosopher who greatly influenced Catholic thought and promoted law not as a way to regulate morality, but to allow human choice.
One of the leaders of the Anti-Corn Law League, John Bright was an advocate for small government and non-interventionist foreign policy.
The content and necessity of the first 10 Amendments of the U.S. Constitution, first debated by Federalists and Anti-Federalists, remains relevant today.
Renowned as one of the first documents limiting royal authority, Magna Carta established written rules and limits of political institutions.
James Madison was instrumental in creating the values behind the United States Constitution, both as one of its primary authors and in his own writings.
One of the major debates over the U.S. Constitution was between the Federalists and Anti-Federalists, largely over the role of the states and a Bill of Rights.
As part of the overthrow of the French monarchy in 1789, this document served as the first attempt at capturing the ideals of a possible French Republic.
The Constitution is the foundational document of the U.S. government. Debates over its interpretation still make a large impact on governmental power.