Natural Law

by Fred Miller on Aug 15, 2008

Natural law theorists explain that all man-made law should derive from some universal law of nature, discovered either through divine inspiration or human reason.


Scholastics/School of Salamanca

by Alejandro A. Chafuen on Aug 15, 2008

The Scholastics, writing during the late Middle Ages, contributed notions of individual rights and trade that would influence many classical liberals.



by Timothy Sandefur on Aug 15, 2008

Constitutionalism binds the government to a pre-decided set of rules and is favored as a form of limiting government expansion.


Liberty in the Ancient World

by Roderick T. Long on Aug 15, 2008

Liberty has been a value to many civilizations. In this entry, Roderick Long highlights a few instances of liberal ideas in pre-modern societies.


Rand, Ayn (1905-1982)

by Chris Sciabarra on Aug 15, 2008

Ayn Rand remains one of the best-known and most influential individualist writers, credited with developing the philosophy of Objectivism.


Public Choice Economics

by William A. Niskanen on Aug 15, 2008

Public choice theory, now popular among academics, approaches economic and political phenomena by examining individual choices and interests.


Arts and Public Support

by Louis Torres on Aug 15, 2008

Government support and funding for the arts has been contested for its too restrictive, too loose, or too political attempts to define art.



by Alexander Volokh on Aug 15, 2008

In this entry, Volokh examines how externalities are generated in the market and questions the assumption that government should act because of them.


Restitution for Crime

by Bruce Benson on Aug 15, 2008

A restitution-based system, which requires the guilty to pay recompense to who they wrong, may be more just than our retribution or crime-based systems.



by Wendy McElroy on Aug 15, 2008

Voluntarism argues that individuals should not be coerced into “socially beneficial” projects, but should act voluntarily to assist others.


Voluntary Contract Enforcement

by Benjamin Powell and Edward P. Stringham on Aug 15, 2008

With many private contract enforcement options in existence, libertarians now question whether government is needed to guarantee contracts are upheld.


Assurance and Trust

by Daniel B. Klein on Aug 15, 2008

Assurance and trust are vital in any transaction. In this entry, Daniel Klein overviews the ways in which assurance arises and who should oversee it.


Economics, Austrian School of

by Peter J. Boettke on Aug 15, 2008

Economists in the Austrian School approach their analysis by looking at human behavior, and how human action by itself creates and regulates markets.


Hayek, Friedrich A. (1889-1992)

by Ronald Hamowy on Aug 15, 2008

Hayek was one of the most prominent economists and philosophers supporting free-market economics and individualism; his work is often discussed today.


Mises, Ludwig von (1881-1972)

by Leland Yeager on Aug 15, 2008

Ludwig von Mises was one of the most influential economists of the Austrian School, focusing among other issues the failures of central planning.


Money and Banking

by Lawrence H. White on Aug 15, 2008

Lawrence H. White explains the changing ways in which economists have thought about money and banking, including the debate over deregulation.


Banking, Austrian Theory Of

by Guido Hülsmann on Aug 15, 2008

Debates over money and banking policy ask to what degree should the government intervene? The Austrian Theory of Banking proposes: very little.


Classical Economics

by Mark Skousen on Aug 15, 2008

Classical economics, the position held by supporters of the free market and limited government, is one of the core tenants of the libertarian platform.