by George H. Smith on Aug 15, 2008

Existentialist philosophy focuses on the individual. Its moral implications, while sometimes criticized, can also have uses for libertarian thought.


Nietzsche, Friedrich (1844-1900)

by Lester Hunt on Aug 15, 2008

Nietzsche was a controversial philosopher of the 19th century whose antagonism towards political institutions remains ambiguous to scholars.


Foucault, Michel (1926-1984)

by Jason Kuznicki on Aug 15, 2008

One of the best-known writers of the 20th cent., Michel Foucault criticized overreaching authority structures as well as state and social coercion.


Evolutionary Psychology

by Leda Cosmides and John Tooby on Aug 15, 2008

Evolutionary psychologists use the underlying concept of evolution to study and attempt to explain human behavior and decision-making. 


Individual Rights

by Eric Mack on Aug 15, 2008

Individual rights function as guarantees of protection and entitlement to a morally granted domain, principally that of self-ownership and choice.


Epstein, Richard A. (1943-)

by Aaron Steelman on Aug 15, 2008

Epstein is a prominent legal scholar whose work on eminent domain and government intervention has influenced major court decisions in the last 50 years.


Health Care

by Michael F. Cannon on Aug 15, 2008

While health care is valuable, it is best planned and organized by the free market, not imposed by paternalistic governments.



by Roderick T. Long on Aug 15, 2008

Epicureanism was a prominent school of thought among classical philosophers, including empiricists and contractarians such as Cicero and Lucretius. 



by Jonathan Adler on Aug 15, 2008

Environmental regulations aim to reduce supposed externalities for the sake of stewardship, but sometimes place an unnecessary burden on the free market.


Schumpeter, Joseph (1883-1950)

by Thomas M. Humphrey on Aug 15, 2008

Joseph Schumpeter was an influential 20th century economist who staunchly defended capitalism and the cycle of innovation and growth it creates.


Wollstonecraft, Mary (1759-1797)

by Wendy McElroy on Aug 15, 2008

Mary Wollstonecraft was a noted figure of the Enlightenment, contributing one of the most influential feminist works of her time.


Montesquieu, Charles de Secondat de

by Jason Kuznicki on Aug 15, 2008

Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu, wrote a theory of limited government that inspired American constitutional design and philosophy.


Kant, Immanuel (1724-1804)

by Ralf Bader on Aug 15, 2008

Immanuel Kant provided a systematic treatise of morality that, among other things, relied on reason, noninterference both of government and individuals, and peace.


Industrial Revolution

by Deirdre McCloskey on Aug 15, 2008

The industrial revolution improved not only production, but standards of living, political and economic freedom, and the spread of ideas and culture.


English Civil Wars

by Ronald Hamowy on Aug 15, 2008

In this entry, Hamowy overviews the English Civil Wars of the mid 17th century and the raised issues of royal authority and religious liberty.



by Hans Eicholz on Aug 15, 2008

Puritans were Protestant Christians in England and Scotland who fought for reform of the church against Anglican opposition and backlash.



by Peter Kurrild-Klitgaard on Aug 15, 2008

The Levellers was a group of radicals who fought both the rule of the English monarchy and Cromwell’s commonwealth during the English Civil War.


Eminent Domain/Takings

by Karol Boudreaux on Aug 15, 2008

Eminent domain, or the power of government to seize private property for public use, as a concept threatens property rights and personal privacy.