In this entry, Timothy Sandefur explains the origins and role of the American judiciary system.
Edward Coke was a prominent lawyer and author who promoted constitutionalism and rights-based justification of law and the powers of government.
Collectivism advocates state control over the economy and civil society. Philosophically, collectivism resembles socialism and opposes individualism.
Communism is the political system in which all aspects of life are planned by the state. Its presence has been devastating for millions of people.
Methodological individualism is the methodological framework wherein individuals are seen as the agents of actions and values that form social phenomena.
Nationalism places the collective identity of a nation above all other aspects of life.
Socialism calls for the social ownership, planning, and redistribution of wealth and goods. It undermines freedom and ultimately fails to meet its ends.
Kleptocracies are those governments that enact policies which take resources from citizens simply for government gain or gain of select interests.
The socialist calculation debate asks whether central planners can efficiently distribute resources. Evidence proves that socialism will always fail.
The National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) force workers into being represented by unions, regardless of their own preferences, and thus lack legitimacy.
Competition between multiple firms fuels innovation, trade, and efficiency. For this reason, competition is an important part of a free market economy.
In this entry, Randall Holcombe overviews the ideals, strengths, and weaknesses of democracy, particularly as it occurs in states today.
The Enlightenment brought a wave of philosophical ideas, including classical liberalism, scientific progress, and social and religious tolerance.
Turgot was a French economist, writer, and royal advisor. He tried to accomplish sweeping liberal reform of the economy and political system.
An advocate for enlightenment and liberal reforms, Marquis de Condorcet had a brief but eventful influence as part the French Revolutionary government.
Libertarians support the concept that virtue, or a sense of moral good present in acts or character, is born from liberty.
In this entry, George H. Smith addresses the idea of conscience in western thought and the importance of liberty of conscience to be maintained.
John Rawls was a political theorist who revived interest in the field. His work can be interpreted in support of some free-market ideas.