Francis Hutcheson’s philosophy addressed moral obligations as they related to personal liberties, virtue, and rights.
George H. Smith
George H. Smith was formerly Senior Research Fellow for the Institute for Humane Studies, a lecturer on American History for Cato Summer Seminars, and Executive Editor of Knowledge Products. Smith's fourth and most recent book, The System of Liberty, was published by Cambridge University Press in 2013.
The Third Earl of Shaftesbury, Cooper was a statesman and philosopher with an interest in individualism and the natural harmony of interests.
Bernard Mandeville’s controversial essays and allegories raised questions about justice and socially or morally virtuous actions.
Franz Oppenheimer, a German sociologist, wrote a comprehensive explanation of the history of the state as a history of conquest.
The Philosophic Radicals, including Jeremy Bentham, were British reformers generally supporting Benthian utilitarianism and democratic change.
Nassau William Senior was an important British economist who contributed to theories of utility, political economy, and value.