Best known for the epic Paradise Lost, Milton was an active voice for republican government and individualism during the English Civil Wars.
Michel de Montaigne was a French writer who popularized the reflective essay and contributed several essays on individualism and humanistic thought.
Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu, wrote a theory of limited government that inspired American constitutional design and philosophy.
Charles Murray’s work has questioned the effectiveness and implications of the American welfare state and promoted individualist solutions instead.
Tonie Nathan was the running mate of 1976 Libertarian presidential candidate John Hospers and the first woman to receive an electoral vote.
Nietzsche was a controversial philosopher of the 19th century whose antagonism towards political institutions remains ambiguous to scholars.
Albert Jay Nock was an influential writer who criticized political action and protested state interventionism at all levels.
Franz Oppenheimer, a German sociologist, wrote a comprehensive explanation of the history of the state as a history of conquest.
José Ortega y Gasset was a philosopher who wrote on the evils of state power and the way society grew and changed after the Industrial Revolution.
A well-known novelist and essayist, George Orwell’s social criticisms against totalitarianism still remain relevant today.
Isabel Paterson was one of the first well-known libertarian women of her era. She wrote in avid support of minimal government and the free economy.
Karl Popper’s theory of knowledge and writings on social philosophy helped to shape much of today’s methodology of social science.
Richard A. Posner is a judge and legal theorist whose work was the foundation for the law and economics movement, which approaches law through economics.
Roscoe Pound was an influential legal scholar whose “sociological jurisprudence” approach tried to adjust the law to better match social realities.
Richard Price was a British philosopher who supported American Independence and the French Revolution and whose work focused on reason in ethics.
Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, self-described both as an anarchist and as a socialist, contributed several rebukes of government and defenses of individualism.
Read was an activist who founded the Foundation for Economic Education, a free-market and anti-socialist nonprofit and educational organization.
Rousseau is regarded as a great political philosopher and contractarian, though his ideas for society often rely on a basis of coercive liberty.