Nietzsche was a controversial philosopher of the 19th century whose antagonism towards political institutions remains ambiguous to scholars.
One of the best-known writers of the 20th cent., Michel Foucault criticized overreaching authority structures as well as state and social coercion.
Evolutionary psychologists use the underlying concept of evolution to study and attempt to explain human behavior and decision-making.
Individual rights function as guarantees of protection and entitlement to a morally granted domain, principally that of self-ownership and choice.
Epstein is a prominent legal scholar whose work on eminent domain and government intervention has influenced major court decisions in the last 50 years.
While health care is valuable, it is best planned and organized by the free market, not imposed by paternalistic governments.
Epicureanism was a prominent school of thought among classical philosophers, including empiricists and contractarians such as Cicero and Lucretius.
Environmental regulations aim to reduce supposed externalities for the sake of stewardship, but sometimes place an unnecessary burden on the free market.
Joseph Schumpeter was an influential 20th century economist who staunchly defended capitalism and the cycle of innovation and growth it creates.
Mary Wollstonecraft was a noted figure of the Enlightenment, contributing one of the most influential feminist works of her time.
Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu, wrote a theory of limited government that inspired American constitutional design and philosophy.
Immanuel Kant provided a systematic treatise of morality that, among other things, relied on reason, noninterference both of government and individuals, and peace.
The industrial revolution improved not only production, but standards of living, political and economic freedom, and the spread of ideas and culture.
In this entry, Hamowy overviews the English Civil Wars of the mid 17th century and the raised issues of royal authority and religious liberty.
Puritans were Protestant Christians in England and Scotland who fought for reform of the church against Anglican opposition and backlash.
The Levellers was a group of radicals who fought both the rule of the English monarchy and Cromwell’s commonwealth during the English Civil War.
Eminent domain, or the power of government to seize private property for public use, as a concept threatens property rights and personal privacy.
One of the founders of Transcendentalism, Ralph Waldo Emerson was also a noted abolitionist and personal activist in the nineteenth century.