One of the major debates over the U.S. Constitution was between the Federalists and Anti-Federalists, largely over the role of the states and a Bill of Rights.
James Madison was instrumental in creating the values behind the United States Constitution, both as one of its primary authors and in his own writings.
Renowned as one of the first documents limiting royal authority, Magna Carta established written rules and limits of political institutions.
The contents and necessity of the first 10 Amendments of the U.S. Constitution, first debated by Federalists and Anti-Federalists, remains relevant today.
One of the leaders of the Anti-Corn Law League, John Bright was an advocate for small government and non-interventionist foreign policy.
Thomas Aquinas was a philosopher who greatly influenced Catholic thought and promoted law not as a way to regulate morality, but to allow human choice.
Corruption in government is a widely discussed issue, as its impacts on government effectiveness impact democratic institutions and individual liberty.
Freedom of speech is a pillar of a free society. In this entry, Alan Charles Kors discusses how it has been attacked even in modern democracies.
In this entry, Bradley Smith outlines the trends and outcomes of campaign finance reform legislation over the past 100 years.
Entrepreneurship, or the development of new products, methods, and means by individuals, is considered to be a compelling factor in economic growth as well.
The physiocrats were French laissez-faire economists in the late 18th century who based their policies and writings on natural reason and science.
A notable early economist, Richard Cantillon is influential for his theories on the self-regulating market, entrepreneurship, and prices.
The advancement of material progress, or quality of life, has increased dramatically within the past few hundred years and continues increasing today.
Retributive justice holds that punishment is the only way to achieve justice and properly disincentivize criminal behavior, but to explain why, opinions differ.
Also known as the death penalty, capital punishment has divided libertarians over the power of government and the justice of criminal procedures.
Classical Republicans were early advocates of constitutionalism and the rule of law. Their work is foundational to political theory today.
Algernon Sidney was a fervent republican whose philosophy and politics, as well as his eventual martyrdom, influenced democratic revolutionaries who followed him.
In this entry, Andrew Coulson surveys the expectations and past models of education throughout history.