The minimal state solution is one wherein the state provides protection for the people in its domain but does nothing else.
Robert Nozick’s work, especially his book Anarchy, State, & Utopia, re-interested many people in political philosophy and libertarianism.
Murray Rothbard’s writings provided a detailed and systematic explanation of politics, society, and economics consistent with libertarian ideas.
What the state should look like varies even among libertarians.
Benjamin R. Tucker was the editor of the periodical, Liberty, which was dedicated to spreading Tucker’s ideas about individualist anarchism.
The most minimal proposed form of state organization, anarchism is the philosophy of the absence of government, and thus government interference in society.
One of the leaders of the Anti-Corn Law League, Richard Cobden is considered an example of a liberal thinker with considerable success in changing British policy.
When the government uses price controls to influence the affordability of products, shortages or surpluses occur - often making the problem worse.
The Anti-Corn Law League was a group that opposed the protectionist British Corn Laws and have been praised as a model for achieving radical libertarian reform.
Capitalism is the economic system used by a majority of modern democracies today, in which the private ownership, exchange, and use of property is promoted.
Government interventionist policies are aimed to solve perceived problems of the completely free market but often result in harmful over-regulation.
Richard A. Posner is a judge and legal theorist whose work was the foundation for the law and economics movement, which approaches law through economics.
Government regulation of the market is often argued to be a response to market failures. However, often these regulations make society worse off.
Rent-seeking occurs when actors lobby the government for regulatory legislation that assures the actor an advantage in the market.
Antitrust legislation seeks to break up big companies and industry monopolies in order to keep markets competitive, but sometimes favors narrow interest groups.
Known as one of the most foundational ancient thinkers, Aristotle’s works explored morality and ethics along with government and social organization.
Natural law theorists explain that all man-made law should derive from some universal law of nature, discovered either through divine inspiration or human reason.
The Scholastics, writing during the late Middle Ages, contributed notions of individual rights and trade that would influence many classical liberals.