Cicero, a great early writer and orator, articulated a universal legal order that was to become foundational for the natural law tradition.
Cosmopolitanism, or globalization, encourages the individual to act as a citizen of the world, not just of a closed nation-state or community.
Culture is a fundamental aspect of civil society and human interaction that can extend to influence legality, economics, and ideology as well.
Jane Jacobs was a prominent activist and writer on the subject of cities and the complex, spontaneous forces that cause cities to form and develop.
On transportation, libertarians suggest that instead of providing mediocre services, governments set guidelines and encourage private solutions.
Libertarians support competition-based private planning of urban areas, rather than solutions that hinge on the government controlling property.
Throughout history, the role of cities has varied. They are crucial stages for the self-organization of people and for the exchange of goods and ideas.
Coercion, the use of force to persuade or limit individual action, has typically been seen as a power of government. It must still be justified.
The Ostroms founded the Bloomington School of Institutional Analysis at the University of Indiana, dedicated to self-governance and evaluating state institutions.
Civil Society refers to the interests, discussions, and institutions used by a society that form without government force by the choices of individuals.
Conscription, or mandatory military service, has been implemented a number of times in U.S. history, but often under incomplete justification.
Mercantilism was the belief that wealth of nations was based on the amount of money held by the nation, through high internal protections and a focus on exports.
In this entry, Jason Sorens considers the potential costs, benefits, and moral implications of secessionism and constitutionally allowing secession.
War is often costly both to the nation and to individual liberties. Most libertarians are skeptical of war or see it as a necessary evil.
With his electoral vote in 1972 and presidential campaign in 1976, Roger Lea MacBride expanded the influence of the Libertarian Party.
In this entry, Robert Higgs outlines public opinion of war throughout American history and the stances the government took to anti-war sentiment.
The 1980 Libertarian party presidential candidate, Ed Clark is a public figure for the libertarian movement and played an important role in its popularization.
Keynesian economists theorize that government spending can be used to manage the economy. It has been a widely accepted stance since the 1930s.