In our finale, we assess Bates’ impact and legacy, comparing his slow and steady reform pace with Spooner’s more radical agenda.
Bates’ personal mission becomes a reform movement, complete with a propaganda arm and lobbying wing. We question the origins of his crusade and its fruits.
Despite Bates’s lifetime of activism for postal reform, the government was extremely slow to change. And when it finally did, Daniel Webster stole all the credit.
The ethical system of Immanuel Kant, properly understood, justifies libertarian political institutions.
Philatelic historian Van Dyk Macbride wrote the only significant biography of one of libertarianism’s unknown heroes.
Hildreth rejects the utilitarian standard of value—happiness—and concludes his book by connecting benevolence and virtue.
In our final portion from Jackson’s veto message, the president denies the Court’s authority to constrain his will and affirms states’ rights to monopoly banking.
Jackson’s message looms large in the libertarian memory of early American history, but how often do we stop to interrogate his motivations?
Hildreth examines the origins of private property and presents his Jacksonian audience with a critique of slavery: it is simply repugnant to a free people.
Hildreth continues his critique of mystical, egoist, and utilitarian ethics, maintaining that none established a firm and reliable standard of ethics.
Godwin compares the rather charmed life of a school boy with the difficult, tedious, taxing drudgery experienced by average Britons.
An economist and historian discuss the strengths and weaknesses libertarians tend to exhibit when communicating with new audiences and dealing with new ideas.
Libertarian political institutions would respect people’s natural rights.
Hildreth introduces the wide variety of competing ethical theories available to nineteenth century thinkers and begins exploring his own “forensic” theory.
Learned late medieval Europeans “divided [into] Dominicans and Franciscans. And all that was most illustrious in intellect at this period belonged” to them.
Libertarian political institutions would maximize utility.
Godwin surveys the history of papal sorcery and finishes his discussion of European contacts with the Middle East during the Crusading era.
“Every valley had its fairies; and every hill its giants. No solitary dwelling…was without its ghosts; and no church-yard…could be crossed with impunity.”