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An Arrow Against All Tyrants

by Richard Overton in 1646

Overton was one of the Levellers who, during the English Civil War, were among the very first to articulate the early ideas of liberalism.

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The Putney Debates: Day One

by Various Authors on Oct 28, 1647

Camped between two epochs in English history and two factions in a civil war, the New Model Army debates republicanism, slavery, and freedom.

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The Putney Debates: Day Two

by Various Authors on Oct 29, 1647

Cromwell and his proxies urge unity of purpose, unity of action, and constant movement forward. Conspiracies flourish in streams of constant activity.

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The Putney Debates: Ireton’s Case

by Various Authors on Oct 29, 1647

Against the levelling impulse in the New Model Army, General Ireton argues that only those with fixed local interests should exercise political power.

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The Putney Debates: The Levellers’ Rejoinder

by Various Authors on Oct 29, 1647

True to their radicalism, the Levellers get to the root of it all: The great land claims defied God’s commandment “Thou shalt not steal.”

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Reclaiming the Commons: Digger Principles

by Various Authors 1649

Gerard Winstanley and the Diggers took direct action to reclaim the commons and level the rights, powers, and privileges unjustly granted to a few aristocrats.