Constant shows how the idea of liberty has changed, from the ancient conception of freedom as part of a collection to the modern, individualist view.
Swiss-born thinker, politician, author, and activist Benjamin Constant defended freedom in France against the ancien regime, the Terror, and Napoleon.
Though famous for his novel, Adolphe, Benjamin Constant is also known in the English-speaking world for his writings on liberal constitutionalism.
Ancient liberty is declining. And some are hoping that you won’t notice.
Powell discusses different conceptions of what it means to be free, arguing against a “rule of the mob.”
Charles Dunoyer was a major influence in the French classical liberal movement. He wrote on law, society, and the benefits of free markets and limited government.
Athens, for all its flaws, was a beacon of personal liberty in the ancient world.
Athens had many procedural safeguards against undesirable behavior.
Liberty has been a value to many civilizations. In this entry, Roderick Long highlights a few instances of liberal ideas in pre-modern societies.
Smith interrupts his usual series with a 30-question trivia quiz.
Known as the namesake of Berlin’s premier university, Wilhelm von Humboldt was a statesman, educational reformer, and German liberal philosopher.
Despite its devastating consequences, the French Revolution (1789-1799) was a major event in the spread of democratic ideals.
A respected French political philosopher, Bertrand de Jouvenel examined a number of topics to do with power and the role of the state.
While valued by many schools of thought, freedom can be understood in a variety of ways, such as the difference between positive and negative freedom.
Long begins a series about the legacy left to libertarianism by ancient Greece with a discussion of Achilles and the Homeric attitude toward war and glory.
Personal freedom in ancient Athens was tied up with economic freedom, including free trade and free immigration.
“Tocqueville saw in America that the “science of association is the mother of science,” that progress and civilization were dependent on it.”