Lao Tzu (c. 600 BC)

by James A. Dorn on Aug 15, 2008

Lao Tzu’s anticipatory work argued that a harmonious and prosperous society was one in which people could make their own economic and personal decisions.

Free Thoughts

Rituals of Freedom: Libertarian Themes in Early Confucianism

featuring Roderick T. Long, Aaron Ross Powell, and Trevor Burrus on Oct 7, 2016

Roderick T. Long joins us to talk about libertarian themes in Chinese philosophy. How much do libertarianism and early Confucianism have in common?


Editorial: Hayek

by Leonard P. Liggio on Dec 1, 1982

“Hayek…weave[d] together the legal, historical, political, and economic dimensions of the freedoms implied in a spontaneous-order social science methodology.”


Liberty in the Ancient World

by Roderick T. Long on Aug 15, 2008

Liberty has been a value to many civilizations. In this entry, Roderick Long highlights a few instances of liberal ideas in pre-modern societies.


Libertarian Theory: A Reading List

by Aaron Ross Powell on Nov 3, 2011

A selection of books to take readers beyond the basics of libertarianism and into the philosophy and economics that provide its foundations.


A History of Libertarianism

by David Boaz on Jan 15, 1997

In this excerpt from Libertarianism: A Primer, Boaz tells the history of the movement for liberty, from Chinese philosopher Lao Tzu through the 20th century.


Why Has Liberty Flourished in the West?

by Jim Powell on Sep 1, 2000

Powell examines the expansion of liberty in western culture and covers the history of free thinkers from Cicero to Ayn Rand.


The Hayek Bibliography

by Various Authors on Dec 1, 1982

Literature of Liberty’s attempt to produce a full bibliography of works by, about, and relevant to Friedrich Hayek.